Set out here are papers relating to VT and providing comparisons between same-age organisation and multi-age grouping.
Mixed-age groups, leverage points and applied systems thinking: How changing from a same-age system to a mixed-age system leads to social and collaborative professionalism and a happier school.
A Tale of Two Systems and the Same-Age Assumption: A situational analysis and interpretation outlining systemic differences generated by age-related organisation in secondary schools.
Friendship, child development and bullying: highlighting assumptions and differences between secondary schools organised using a traditional same-age basis structure (the universal model or grade/year system) and schools using a mixed-age system (vertical tutoring or VT).
Barnard, P. A. (2019) Socially collaborative schools: the heretic's guide to mixed-age tutor groups, system design, and the goal of goodness. Rowman & Littlefield. London and NY.
A systems thinking exploration into the rise in mental health and well-being issues in UK secondary schools concerning same-age and mixed-age systems (vertical tutoring).
Do you still think big kids bully little kids, that being with others the same age all day long is a good thing, that being in the same year group keeps students safe, that sending home data sheets is effective communication, that parent engagement is better than parent partnership...think again!